Excessive oxidative stress plays a critical role in the progression of various diseases. Recently, we showed that Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb. extract (TBE) inhibits inflammatory response and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in THP-1 macrophages. However, molecular mechanisms underlying anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of TBE and its major polyphenolic compounds gallic acid (GA) and ellagic acid (EA) remain unclear. We found that TBE and GA attenuated LPS-induced inflammatory mediator expression, ROS production, and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) in RAW 264 macrophages. Furthermore, TBE and GA increased antioxidant enzyme expression along with upstream mediators nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), Akt, and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Importantly, knockdown of Nrf2 by siRNA and specific inhibition of Akt and AMPK significantly reduced antioxidant enzyme expression induced by TBE and GA. Finally, in vivo effects on histopathology and gene expression were assessed in tissues collected after intraperitoneal injection of LPS with or without TBE treatment. TBE enhanced antioxidant enzyme expression and improved acute kidney injury in LPS-shock model mice. In conclusion, TBE and GA exert protective effects against inflammation and oxidative stress by suppressing MAPK/NF-κB pathway and by activating Akt/AMPK/Nrf2 pathway. These results suggest that TBE and GA might be effective for the treatment of inflammation-related diseases.