Calcium is an important messenger in the neuronal system, but its specific role in axonal regeneration has not been fully investigated. To clarify it, we constructed a noninvasive in vivo calcium-imaging model of zebrafish Mauthner cells and monitored subcellular calcium dynamics during axonal regeneration. Using the calcium indicator GCamp6f, we observed that the regenerative length correlated with the peak amplitude of the evoked calcium response before axotomy, which suggested that the evoked calcium response might serve as a useful indicator of evoked neuronal activity and axonal regenerative capacity. To investigate this possibility, we overexpressed an inward rectifying potassium channel protein, Kir2.1a, to decrease the Mauthner neuronal activity and found that the inhibition of the calcium response correlated with decreased axonal regeneration. In contrast, treatment of pentylenetetrazol and knockout of the sodium voltage-gated channel α subunit 1 gene increased the calcium response and thus enhanced axonal regeneration. Our results therefore increased the understanding of the correlation between the neural activity and the vertebrate axonal regeneration.-Chen, M., Huang, R.-C., Yang, L.-Q., Ren, D.-L., Hu, B. In vivo imaging of evoked calcium responses indicates the intrinsic axonal regenerative capacity of zebrafish.