Terfestatin A (TrfA), terphenyl-beta-glucoside, was isolated from Streptomyces sp. F40 in a forward screen for compounds that inhibit the expression of auxin-inducible genes in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). TrfA specifically and competitively inhibited the expression of primary auxin-inducible genes in Arabidopsis roots, but did not affect the expression of genes regulated by other plant hormones such as abscisic acid and cytokinin. TrfA also blocked the auxin-enhanced degradation of auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) repressor proteins without affecting the auxin-stimulated interaction between Aux/IAAs and the F-box protein TIR1. TrfA treatment antagonized auxin responses in roots, including primary root inhibition, lateral root initiation, root hair promotion, and root gravitropism, but had only limited effects on shoot auxin responses. Taken together, these results indicate that TrfA acts as a modulator of Aux/IAA stability and thus provides a new tool for dissecting auxin signaling.