Tankyrase 1 is a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) which localizes to multiple subcellular sites, including telomeres and mitotic centrosomes. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of the nuclear mitotic apparatus (NuMA) protein by tankyrase 1 during mitosis is essential for sister telomere resolution and mitotic spindle pole formation. In interphase cells, tankyrase 1 resides in the cytoplasm, and its role therein is not well understood. In this study, we found that herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection induced extensive modification of tankyrase 1 but not tankyrase 2. This modification was dependent on extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activity triggered by HSV infection. Following HSV-1 infection, tankyrase 1 was recruited to the nucleus. In the early phase of infection, tankyrase 1 colocalized with ICP0 and thereafter localized within the HSV replication compartment, which was blocked in cells infected with the HSV-1 ICP0-null mutant R7910. In the absence of infection, ICP0 interacted with tankyrase 1 and efficiently promoted its nuclear localization. HSV did not replicate efficiently in cells depleted of both tankyrases 1 and 2. Moreover, XAV939, an inhibitor of tankyrase PARP activity, decreased viral titers to 2 to 5% of control values. We concluded that HSV targets tankyrase 1 in an ICP0- and ERK-dependent manner to facilitate its replication.