RRC ID 76099
Author Yu SC, Liewald JF, Shao J, Steuer Costa W, Gottschalk A.
Title Synapsin Is Required for Dense Core Vesicle Capture and cAMP-Dependent Neuropeptide Release.
Journal J Neurosci
Abstract Release of neuropeptides from dense core vesicles (DCVs) is essential for neuromodulation. Compared with the release of small neurotransmitters, much less is known about the mechanisms and proteins contributing to neuropeptide release. By optogenetics, behavioral analysis, electrophysiology, electron microscopy, and live imaging, we show that synapsin SNN-1 is required for cAMP-dependent neuropeptide release in Caenorhabditis elegans hermaphrodite cholinergic motor neurons. In synapsin mutants, behaviors induced by the photoactivated adenylyl cyclase bPAC, which we previously showed to depend on ACh and neuropeptides (Steuer Costa et al., 2017), are altered as in animals with reduced cAMP. Synapsin mutants have slight alterations in synaptic vesicle (SV) distribution; however, a defect in SV mobilization was apparent after channelrhodopsin-based photostimulation. DCVs were largely affected in snn-1 mutants: DCVs were ∼30% reduced in synaptic terminals, and their contents not released following bPAC stimulation. Imaging axonal DCV trafficking, also in genome-engineered mutants in the serine-9 protein kinase A phosphorylation site, showed that synapsin captures DCVs at synapses, making them available for release. SNN-1 colocalized with immobile, captured DCVs. In synapsin deletion mutants, DCVs were more mobile and less likely to be caught at release sites, and in nonphosphorylatable SNN-1B(S9A) mutants, DCVs traffic less and accumulate, likely by enhanced SNN-1 dependent tethering. Our work establishes synapsin as a key mediator of neuropeptide release.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Little is known about mechanisms that regulate how neuropeptide-containing dense core vesicles (DCVs) traffic along the axon, how neuropeptide release is orchestrated, and where it occurs. We found that one of the longest known synaptic proteins, required for the regulation of synaptic vesicles and their storage in nerve terminals, synapsin, is also essential for neuropeptide release. By electrophysiology, imaging, and electron microscopy in Caenorhabditis elegans, we show that synapsin regulates this process by tethering the DCVs to the cytoskeleton in axonal regions where neuropeptides are to be released. Without synapsin, DCVs cannot be captured at the release sites and, consequently, cannot fuse with the membrane, and neuropeptides are not released. We suggest that synapsin fulfills this role also in vertebrates, including humans.
Volume 41(19)
Pages 4187-4201
Published 2021-5-12
DOI 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2631-20.2021
PII JNEUROSCI.2631-20.2021
PMID 33820857
PMC PMC8143207
MeSH Animals Animals, Genetically Modified Behavior, Animal Caenorhabditis elegans Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins / genetics* Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins / physiology* Cyclic AMP / metabolism* Electrophysiological Phenomena Mutation Neuropeptides / metabolism* Optogenetics Photic Stimulation Presynaptic Terminals Synapsins / genetics* Synapsins / physiology* Synaptic Transmission / genetics Synaptic Vesicles / genetics Synaptic Vesicles / physiology*
C.elegans tm2557