RRC ID 78740
Author Sakao K, Saruwatari H, Minami S, Hou DX.
Title Hydroxyl Group Acetylation of Quercetin Enhances Intracellular Absorption and Persistence to Upregulate Anticancer Activity in HepG2 Cells.
Journal Int J Mol Sci
Abstract Quercetin, a flavonoid compound widely distributed in many plants, is known to have potent antitumor effects on several cancer cells. Our previous study revealed that the acetylation of quercetin enhanced its antitumor effect. However, the mechanisms remain unknown. This study aimed to elucidate the bioavailability of acylated quercetin in the HepG2 cell model based on its antitumor effect. The positions of quercetin 3,7,3',4'-OH were acetylated as 3,7,3',4'-O-tetraacetylquercetin (4Ac-Q). The inhibitory effect of 4Ac-Q on HepG2 cell proliferation was assessed by measuring cell viability. The apoptosis was characterized by apoptotic proteins and mitochondrial membrane potential shifts, as well as mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. The bioavailability of 4Ac-Q was analyzed by measuring the uptake and metabolites in HepG2 cells with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-photodiode array detector (PDA) and-ultraviolet/visible detector (UV/Vis). The results revealed that 4Ac-Q enhanced the inhibitory effect on HepG2 cell proliferation and induced its apoptosis significantly higher than quercetin. Protein array analysis of apoptosis-related protein indicated that 4Ac-Q increased the activation or expression of pro-apoptotic proteins, including caspase-3, -9, as well as second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases (SMAC), and suppressed the expression of apoptosis inhibiting proteins such as cellular inhibitor of apoptosis (cIAP)-1, -2, Livin, Survivin, and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP). Furthermore, 4Ac-Q stimulated mitochondrial cytochrome c release into the cytosol by enhancing ROS level and depolarizing the mitochondrial membrane. Finally, the analysis of uptake and metabolites of 4Ac-Q in HpG2 cells with HPLC-PDA and -UV/Vis revealed that 4Ac-Q was metabolized to quercetin and several different acetylated quercetins which caused 2.5-fold higher quercetin present in HepG2 cells than parent quercetin. These data demonstrated that acetylation of the quercetin hydroxyl group significantly increased its intracellular absorption. Taken together, our findings provide the first evidence that acetyl modification of quercetin not only substantially augments the intracellular absorption of quercetin but also bolsters its metabolic stability to elongate its intracellular persistence. Therefore, acetylation could serve as a strategic approach to enhance the ability of quercetin and analogous flavonoids to suppress cancer cell proliferation.
Volume 24(23)
Published 2023-11-23
DOI 10.3390/ijms242316652
PII ijms242316652
PMID 38068974
PMC PMC10706045
MeSH Acetylation Apoptosis* Flavonoids / pharmacology Hep G2 Cells Humans Quercetin* / metabolism Quercetin* / pharmacology Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism
Human and Animal Cells Hep G2(RCB1648)