Schizosaccharomyces pombe Bgs1p/Cps1p has been identified as a putative (1,3)beta-D-glucan synthase (GS) catalytic subunit with a possible function during cytokinesis and polarized growth. To study this possibility, double mutants of cps1-12 and cdc septation mutants were made. The double mutants displayed several hypersensitive phenotypes and altered actin distribution. Epistasis analysis showed mutations prior to septum synthesis were dominant over cps1-12, while cps1-12 was dominant over the end of septation mutant cdc16-116, suggesting Bgs1p is involved in septum cell-wall (1,3)beta-D-glucan synthesis at cytokinesis. We have studied the in vivo physiological localization of Bgs1p in a bgs1delta strain containing a functional GFP-bgs1(+) gene (integrated single copy and expressed under its own promoter). During vegetative growth, Bgs1p always localizes to the growing zones: one or both ends during cell growth and contractile ring and septum during cytokinesis. Bgs1p localization in cdc septation mutants indicates that Bgs1p needs the medial ring and septation initiation network (SIN) proteins to localize properly with the rest of septation components. Bgs1p localization in the actin mutant cps8-188 shows it depends on actin localization. In addition, Bgs1p remains polarized in the mislocalized growing poles and septa of tea1-1 and tea2-1 mutants. During the meiotic process of the life cycle, Bgs1p localizes to the mating projection, to the cell-to-cell contact zone during cell fusion and to the neck area during zygote formation. Also, Bgs1p localization suggests that it collaborates in forespore and spore wall synthesis. During spore germination, Bgs1p localizes first around the spore during isotropic growth, then to the zone of polarized growth and finally, to the medial ring and septum. At the end of spore-cell division, the Bgs1p displacement to the old end occurs only in the new cell. All these data show that Bgs1p is localized to the areas of polarized cell wall growth and so we propose that it might be involved in synthesizing the lineal (1,3)beta-D-glucan of the primary septum, as well as a similar lineal (1,3)beta-D-glucan when other processes of cell wall growth or repair are needed.