Tsubaki M, Yamazoe Y, Yanae M, Satou T, Itoh T, Kaneko J, Kidera Y, Moriyama K, Nishida S.
The tumor microenvironment plays a critical role in modulating malignant behavior and can dramatically influence cancer treatment strategies. We investigated whether statins inhibit the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) mRNA in the mouse osteosarcoma cell line LM8. We found that statins significantly inhibited mRNA expressions of bFGF, HGF, and TGF-β, and bFGF, HGF, and TGF-β secretions at concentrations that did not have antiproliferative effects on LM8 cells, but had no effect on the mRNA expression and secretion of VEGF. The inhibition of bFGF, HGF, and TGF-β mRNA expression, and bFGF, HGF, TGF-β secretions was reversed when geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP), an intermediate in the mevalonate pathway, was used in combination with statins. Furthermore, statins reduced the membrane localization of K-Ras, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), and phosphorylated Akt. Our research indicates that statins inhibit GGPP biosynthesis in the mevalonate pathway, and then inhibit signal transduction in the Ras/ERK and Ras/Akt pathways, thereby inhibiting bFGF, HGF, TGF-β expression in LM8 cells. These results suggest that statins are potentially useful as anti-angiogenic agents for the treatment of osteosarcoma.