In Drosophila melanogaster, gustatory receptor genes (Grs) encode putative G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that are expressed in gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs). One of the Gr genes, Gr5a, encodes a receptor for trehalose that is expressed in a subset of GRNs. Although a role for the G protein, Gsα, has been shown in Gr5a-expressing taste neurons, there is the residual responses to trehalose in Gsα mutants which could suggest additional transduction mechanisms. Expression and genetic analysis of the heterotrimeric G-protein subunit, Gq, shown here suggest involvement of this Gα subunit in trehalose perception in Drosophila. A green fluorescent protein reporter of Gq expression is detected in gustatory neurons in the labellum, tarsal segments, and wing margins. Animals heterozygous for dgq mutations and RNA interference-mediated knockdown of dgq showed reduced responses to trehalose in the proboscis extension reflex assay and feeding behavior assay. These defects were rescued by targeted expression of the wild-type dgqα transgene in the GRNs. These data together with observations from other mutants in phospholipid signaling provide insights into the mechanisms of taste transduction in Drosophila.