Sulahian R, Kwon JJ, Walsh KH, Pailler E, Bosse TL, Thaker M, Almanza D, Dempster JM, Pan J, Piccioni F, Dumont N, Gonzalez A, Rennhack J, Nabet B, Bachman JA, Goodale A, Lee Y, Bagul M, Liao R, Navarro A, Yuan TL, Ng RWS, Raghavan S, Gray NS, Tsherniak A, Vazquez F, Root DE, Firestone AJ, Settleman J, Hahn WC, Aguirre AJ.
The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is a critical effector of oncogenic RAS signaling, and MAPK pathway inhibition may be an effective combination treatment strategy. We performed genome-scale loss-of-function CRISPR-Cas9 screens in the presence of a MEK1/2 inhibitor (MEKi) in KRAS-mutant pancreatic and lung cancer cell lines and identified genes that cooperate with MEK inhibition. While we observed heterogeneity in genetic modifiers of MEKi sensitivity across cell lines, several recurrent classes of synthetic lethal vulnerabilities emerged at the pathway level. Multiple members of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)-RAS-MAPK pathways scored as sensitizers to MEKi. In particular, we demonstrate that knockout, suppression, or degradation of SHOC2, a positive regulator of MAPK signaling, specifically cooperated with MEK inhibition to impair proliferation in RAS-driven cancer cells. The depletion of SHOC2 disrupted survival pathways triggered by feedback RTK signaling in response to MEK inhibition. Thus, these findings nominate SHOC2 as a potential target for combination therapy.