Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, also known as HER1) and HER2, prominent members of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) superfamily, have been reported as diagnostic or prognostic markers in tumor progression. Based on the importance of molecular hybridization of pyrazoline and thiazole scaffolds in the discovery of potent anticancer agents, new thiazolyl-pyrazoline derivatives (3a-v) were synthesized and screened for their cytotoxic effects on A549 human lung adenocarcinoma, MCF-7 human breast adenocarcinoma and A375 human melanoma cell lines. 1-(4-(4-Fluorophenyl)thiazol-2-yl)-3-(4-morpholinophenyl)-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-pyrazoline (3c),1-(4-(4-cyanophenyl)thiazol-2-yl)-3-(4-morpholinophenyl)-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-pyrazoline (3f) and 1-(4-(4-cyanophenyl)thiazol-2-yl)-3-(4-piperidinophenyl)-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-pyrazoline (3q) were found as the most potent anticancer agents against A549 and MCF-7 cell lines compared to erlotinib. Compound 3q also showed moderate cytotoxic activity against A375 cell line. Moreover, these compounds exert a cancer cell-selective action against Jurkat cell line posing no toxicity on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). In order to enlighten the mechanism of action underlying anticancer activity, compounds 3c, 3f and 3q were investigated for their apoptotic effects on A549 and MCF-7 cell lines and inhibitory potencies against eight different RTKs including EGFR and HER2 compared to erlotinib. The results indicated that compounds 3f and 3q induced apoptosis in both cell lines and showed significant EGFR inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 4.34 ± 0.66 μM and 4.71 ± 0.84 μM, respectively when compared with erlotinib (IC50 = 0.05 ± 0.01 μM). Besides, compound 3f also inhibited HER2 notably with an IC50 value of 2.28 ± 0.53 μM making it a dual EGFR and HER2 inhibitor. Molecular docking studies, which were conducted to support the in vitro assays, pointed out that compound 3f showed high affinity into the ATP binding sites of EGFR and HER2.