Escape of cancer cells from chemotherapy is a problem in the management of cancer patients. Research on chemotherapy resistance has mainly focused on the heterogeneity of cancer cells, multiple gene mutations, and quiescence of malignant cancer cells. However, some studies have indicated that interactions between cancer cells and vascular cells promote resistance to chemotherapy. Here, we established mouse leukemia models using the cell lines THP-1 or MEG-1. These were derived from acute and chronic myeloid leukemias, respectively, and highly expressed DNA replication factor PSF1, a member of the GINS complex. We found that, after anti-cancer drug administration, surviving GFP-positive leukemia cells in the bone marrow were located adjacent to blood vessels, as previously reported in a subcutaneous solid tumor transplantation model. Treating THP-1 and MEG-1 cells with anti-cancer drugs in vitro revealed that those most strongly expressing PSF1 were most chemoresistant, suggesting that PSF1 induces not only cell cycle progression but also facilitates cell survival. Indeed, when PSF1 expression was suppressed by shRNA, the growth rate was reduced and cell death was enhanced in both cell lines. Furthermore, PSF1 knockdown in leukemia cells led to a change in their location at a distance from the blood vessels in a bone marrow transplantation model. These findings potentially reflect a mechanism of escape of leukemic cells from chemotherapy and suggest that PSF1 may be a possible therapeutic target to enhance the effect of chemotherapy.