Chromosome 16p13.11 microduplication is a risk factor associated with various neurodevelopmental disorders such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, intellectual disabilities, developmental delay and autistic spectrum disorder. The underlying molecular mechanism of this genetic variation remained unknown, but its core genetic locus-conserved across mice and humans-contains seven genes. Here, we generated bacterial artificial chromosome-transgenic mice carrying a human 16p13.11 locus, and these mice showed the behavioral hyperactivity phenotype. We identified miR-484 as the responsible gene using a combination of expression and functional analyses. Mature miR-484 was expressed during active cortical neurogenesis, and overexpression of miR-484 decreased proliferation and increased neural progenitor differentiation in vivo. Luciferase screening identified the 3'-untranslated region of protocadherin-19 (Pcdh19) as a target of miR-484. The effect of miR-484 on neurogenesis was rescued by ectopic PCDH19 expression. These results demonstrate that miR-484 promotes neurogenesis by inhibiting PCDH19. Dysregulation of neurogenesis by imbalanced miR-484/PCDH19 expression contributes to the pathogenesis of 16p13.11 microduplication syndrome.