Regulation of cellular proliferation and quiescence is a central issue in biology that has been studied using model unicellular eukaryotes, such as the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. We previously reported that the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway and autophagy are essential to maintain quiescence induced by nitrogen deprivation in S. pombe; however, specific ubiquitin ligases that maintain quiescence are not fully understood. Here we investigated the SPX-RING-type ubiquitin ligase Pqr1, identified as required for quiescence in a genetic screen. Pqr1 is found to be crucial for vacuolar proteolysis, the final step of autophagy, through proper regulation of phosphate and its polymer polyphosphate. Pqr1 restricts phosphate uptake into the cell through ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of phosphate transporters on plasma membranes. We hypothesized that Pqr1 may act as the central regulator for phosphate control in S. pombe, through the function of the SPX domain involved in phosphate sensing. Deletion of pqr1+ resulted in hyperaccumulation of intracellular phosphate and polyphosphate and in improper autophagy-dependent proteolysis under conditions of nitrogen starvation. Polyphosphate hyperaccumulation in pqr1+-deficient cells was mediated by the polyphosphate synthase VTC complex in vacuoles. Simultaneous deletion of VTC complex subunits rescued Pqr1 mutant phenotypes, including defects in proteolysis and loss of viability during quiescence. We conclude that excess polyphosphate may interfere with proteolysis in vacuoles by mechanisms that as yet remain unknown. The present results demonstrate a connection between polyphosphate metabolism and vacuolar functions for proper autophagy-dependent proteolysis, and we propose that polyphosphate homeostasis contributes to maintenance of cellular viability during quiescence.