Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an erosive polyarthritis that can lead to severe joint destruction and painful disability if left untreated. Angiogenesis, a critical pathogenic mechanism in RA, attracts inflammatory leukocytes into the synovium, which promotes production of proinflammatory cytokines and destructive proteases. Adipokines, inflammatory mediators secreted by adipose tissue, also contribute to the pathophysiology of RA. The most abundant serum adipokine is adiponectin, which demonstrates proinflammatory effects in RA, although the mechanisms linking adiponectin and angiogenic manifestations of RA are not well understood. Our investigations with the human MH7A synovial cell line have revealed that adiponectin dose- and time-dependently increases vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, stimulating endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) tube formation and migration. These adiponectin-induced angiogenic activities were facilitated by MEK/ERK signaling. In vivo experiments confirmed adiponectin-induced downregulation of microRNA-106a-5p (miR-106a-5p). Inhibiting adiponectin reduced joint swelling, bone destruction, and angiogenic marker expression in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mice. Our evidence suggests that targeting adiponectin has therapeutic potential for patients with RA. Clinical investigations are needed.