Reference - Detail
|Author||Reimer MM, Sörensen I, Kuscha V, Frank RE, Liu C, Becker CG, Becker T.|
|Title||Motor neuron regeneration in adult zebrafish.|
The mammalian spinal cord does not regenerate motor neurons that are lost as a result of injury or disease. Here we demonstrate that adult zebrafish, which show functional spinal cord regeneration, are capable of motor neuron regeneration. After a spinal lesion, the ventricular zone shows a widespread increase in proliferation, including slowly proliferating olig2-positive (olig2+) ependymo-radial glial progenitor cells. Lineage tracing in olig2:green fluorescent protein transgenic fish indicates that these cells switch from a gliogenic phenotype to motor neuron production. Numbers of undifferentiated small HB9+ and islet-1+ motor neurons, which are double labeled with the proliferation marker 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU), are transiently strongly increased in the lesioned spinal cord. Large differentiated motor neurons, which are lost after a lesion, reappear at 6-8 weeks after lesion, and we detected ChAT+/BrdU+ motor neurons that were covered by contacts immunopositive for the synaptic marker SV2. These observations suggest that, after a lesion, plasticity of olig2+ progenitor cells may allow them to generate motor neurons, some of which exhibit markers for terminal differentiation and integration into the existing adult spinal circuitry.
|MeSH||Animals Animals, Genetically Modified Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors / genetics Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors / metabolism Bromodeoxyuridine Cell Count Cell Differentiation Cell Lineage Cell Proliferation Green Fluorescent Proteins / genetics Homeodomain Proteins / genetics Homeodomain Proteins / metabolism LIM-Homeodomain Proteins Microscopy, Electron Motor Neurons* / pathology Nerve Regeneration* Nerve Tissue Proteins / genetics Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism Neuroglia / metabolism Neuroglia / pathology Oligodendrocyte Transcription Factor 2 Phenotype Recombinant Fusion Proteins / genetics Spinal Cord / metabolism Spinal Cord / pathology Spinal Cord Injuries / pathology Spinal Cord Injuries / physiopathology* Stem Cells / metabolism Stem Cells / pathology Transcription Factors / genetics Transcription Factors / metabolism Zebrafish* Zebrafish Proteins / genetics Zebrafish Proteins / metabolism|