Hasan AU, Ohmori K, Konishi K, Igarashi J, Hashimoto T, Kamitori K, Yamaguchi F, Tsukamoto I, Uyama T, Ishihara Y, Noma T, Tokuda M, Kohno M.
Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) released from adipocytes promotes angiogenesis; and thereby ameliorates the local hypoxia-induced adipose inflammation and insulin resistance. Here, we newly found that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) upregulated both mRNA expression and release of VEGF-A in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Silencing mRNA of G-protein coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) and specific inhibition of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) by GW9662 respectively attenuated the EPA-induced augmentation of VEGF-A release by adipocytes. Furthermore, transfection of GPR120 gene alone and PPARγ gene alone to HEK293 cells respectively increased the promoter activity of VEGF-A as assessed by luciferase reporter assay, which was further augmented when both genes were co-transfected. Promoter deletion analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed that co-transfection of GPR120 enhanced EPA-induced PPARγ binding to PPAR-response element in VEGF-A promoter region. Thus, by the synchronized activation of a membrane receptor GRP120 and a nuclear receptor PPARγ, EPA enhances VEGF-A production in adipocytes.