Using a High Efficiency Genome Scanning (HEGS) system and recombinant inbred (RI) lines derived from the cross of Russia 6 and H.E.S. 4, a high-density genetic map was constructed in barley. The resulting 1,595.7-cM map encompassed 1,172 loci distributed on the seven linkage groups comprising 1,134 AFLP, 34 SSR, three STS and vrs1 (kernel row type) loci. Including PCR reactions, gel electrophoresis and data processing, 6 months of work by a single person was sufficient for the whole mapping procedure under a reasonable cost. To make an appraisal of the resolution of genetic analysis for the 95 RI lines based on the constructed linkage map, we measured three agronomic traits: plant height, spike exsertion length and 1,000-kernel weight, and the analyzed quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with these traits. The results were compared on the number of detected QTLs and their effects between a high-density map and a skeleton map constructed by selected AFLP and anchor markers. The composite interval mapping on the high-density map detected more QTLs than the other analyses. Closely linked markers with QTLs on the high-density map could be powerful tools for marker-assisted selection in barley breeding programs and further genetic analyses including an advanced backcross analysis or a map-based cloning of QTL.