RRC ID 67285
Author Mudaliar P, Pradeep P, Abraham R, Sreekumar E.
Title Targeting cap-dependent translation to inhibit Chikungunya virus replication: selectivity of p38 MAPK inhibitors to virus-infected cells due to autophagy-mediated down regulation of phospho-ERK.
Journal J Gen Virol
Abstract The 5' capped, message-sense RNA genome of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) utilizes the host cell machinery for translation. Translation is regulated by eIF2 alpha at the initiation phase and by eIF4F at cap recognition. Translational suppression by eIF2 alpha phosphorylation occurs as an early event in many alphavirus infections. We observe that in CHIKV-infected HEK293 cells, this occurs as a late event, by which time the viral replication has reached an exponential phase, implying its minimal role in virus restriction. The regulation by eIF4F is mediated through the PI3K-Akt-mTOR, p38 MAPK and RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK pathways. A kinetic analysis revealed that CHIKV infection did not modulate AKT phosphorylation, but caused a significant reduction in p38 MAPK phosphorylation. It caused degradation of phospho-ERK 1/2 by increased autophagy, leaving the PI3K-Akt-mTOR and p38 MAPK pathways for pharmacological targeting. mTOR inhibition resulted in moderate reduction in viral titre, but had no effect on CHIKV E2 protein expression, indicating a minimal role of the mTOR complex in virus replication. Inhibition of p38 MAPK using SB202190 caused a significant reduction in viral titre and CHIKV E2 and nsP3 protein expression. Furthermore, inhibiting the two pathways together did not offer any synergism, indicating that inhibiting the p38 MAPK pathway alone is sufficient to cause restriction of CHIKV replication. Meanwhile, in uninfected cells the fully functional RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK pathway can circumvent the effect of p38 MAPK inhibition on cap-dependent translation. Thus, our results show that host-directed antiviral strategies targeting cellular p38 MAPK are worth exploring against Chikungunya as they could be selective against CHIKV-infected cells with minimal effects on uninfected host cells.
Volume 102(7)
Published 2021-7-1
DOI 10.1099/jgv.0.001629
PMID 34328830
MeSH Apoptosis Autophagy* Cell Line, Tumor Chikungunya virus / drug effects* Chikungunya virus / genetics Chikungunya virus / physiology Down-Regulation Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases / metabolism* HEK293 Cells Humans Imidazoles / pharmacology* MAP Kinase Signaling System Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1 / metabolism Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3 / metabolism Phosphorylation Protein Biosynthesis* Pyridines / pharmacology* RNA Caps TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism Virus Replication / drug effects p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors*
IF 3.376
Human and Animal Cells HuH-7(RCB1366)